Anatomy of the shoulder press

on Wednesday, 16 May 2012. Posted in Fitness

"Properly performed, full-range-of-motion barbell exercises are essentially the functional expression of human skeletal and muscular anatomy under a load."
Mark Rippetoe

The press is another of those exercises that can be used to develop strength and musculature in a variety of muscles. Along with the bench press, the shoulder press should be part of any training programme geared towards increasing strength in the upper body.

Anatomy-of-a-Shoulder-Press-001The type of form adopted for the shoulder press can be varied with the use of both barbell and dumbbells each bringing their own strengths and weaknesses. Here we will concentrate on the standing shoulder press, or „Military Shoulder Press‟, although I will also touch upon the alternatives later.

The military shoulder press is predominantly a shoulder exercise, hitting all 3 of the shoulder heads (the clue is in the name!) However when performed correctly, with optimal weight, the military press also hits the traps, triceps and „core‟ muscles.

When teaching the correct form of the military press, my preference is to use an empty Olympic barbell. If an Olympic barbell provides too much resistance, simply use a broom handle or similar lightweight pole until the correct form is mastered. Using too much weight at an early stage can cause technique errors to manifest themselves and become habitual, which if left uncorrected, could cause less than optimal performance and injuries to occur.

Steps to Heavenly Technique series

The steps below will allow you to master this multi-muscle strength builder in no time! Ideally the bar should be set up at around chest height, similar to if we were using the bar for squats, however, this is not always possible. A training partner or spotter that can aid you in getting the bar in to position can be invaluable, especially when performing working sets.

1. The first step in the military press is the grip. Simple human mechanics dictate how and where to grip the barbell. Grasp the bar just outside shoulder width so that the forearms are in a vertical position. This allows the bones of the forearm to be placed directly below the bar, on the heel of the hand. Positioning the bar here is optimal for the early stages of the „drive‟.

Anatomy-of-a-Shoulder-Press-0022. The position of the elbows is an important point to consider for the balance of the shoulder press. Elbows under or behind the bar can cause the barbell to be driven away from the body, making a less than efficient and therefore less than optimal movement. This can also place unwanted stress on the shallow shoulder joint. Ideally, we want the bar to be resting on the front heads of the shoulders, with elbows slightly ahead of the bar. This will allow the bar to be driven directly upwards to a point over the crown of the head, in-line with both the shoulder blades and the middle of the feet. Yes, this means the bar will move towards your forehead, but as you will see below, we move the forehead out of the way first!

*TOP TIP 1
Inhaling a deep breath and attempting exhalation against a closed airway is called the Valsalva Manoeuvre. It is used by divers, aviators and powerlifters and is a way of supporting the spine when placing it under loads. Practice this and use it when performing exercises such as the press, deadlift and squat.

3. The military press requires a firm base from which to drive from. Using a stance not too dissimilar to one that would be used to squat, we are able to provide a stable base of the „kinetic chain‟. The kinetic chain is the various muscles and bones involved in the production and transmission of force between the base of support and the load being moved, in this case starting at the ground and ending at the bar. This is one reason why it is important that the correct footwear is used when performing barbell movements such as the press, deadlift and squat. The standing military press requires the longest kinetic chain of the human body and is therefore a great way of building stability whilst under load.

 4. Once you have established a firm base, it is time to stabilise the upper back by lifting the upper chest or "showing off your boobs". Imagine you are pushing your chest up towards your chin by contracting the upper erector spinae. This movement along with the correct positioning of the elbows lays the foundation of the pressing movement.

5. When you are ready, take a deep breath*, hold it and press the bar overhead until the elbows are locked out. The bar should finish positioned over the middle of the foot, the shoulder blades and behind the forehead, not infront.
Once the bar is locked out at the top, shrug the shoulders up to support the bar, The arms and traps working together will support the bar overhead, particularly when using heavy weights. Locking the elbows out and shrugging the traps up with the bar directly over the ears, produces a stable position for the shoulder girdle muscles and prevents shoulder impingement.

Anatomy-of-a-Shoulder-Press-0036. In 1972 the standing shoulder press was dropped from Olympic weightlifting competition. One reason for this was the bench press was growing as a preferred choice as a pressing movement (a movement with a very short kinetic chain ironically). Another reason is the amount of „lean‟ permitted by competition judges was just too varied. However, as we‟re not under competition rules, learning to lean‟ is key to not driving the bar into our nose and forehead. As the bar is starting a few inches ahead of where it will finish, some lateral movement is needed as the bar moves vertically. Pushing the hips forward whilst the bar is resting on the shoulders helps us to achieve this. The knees and lower back must remain locked out during this movement, as the hips are the only part of the body required here. This movement can and should be practiced without the bar. Practice isometric contractions the abdominals and quadriceps to stabilise the lower back and knees whilst not using the bar. This can be invaluable Image taken from Starting Strength 3rd Edition by Mark Rippetoe when it comes to incorporating this technique to a weighted barbell.

*TOP TIP 2
Utilising the push press is a great way to finish of the set, especially as fatigue has kicked in. From the standard starting position (A), bend the knees slightly whilst maintaining your stable „core‟ (B). Drive the hips upwards explosively. With this momentum, drive the bar upwards and continue to lockout as with the military press (C).

7. Once you have practiced this motion and feel comfortable with its use whilst under a weighted bar, it is time to incorporate each element together. Take the bar out of the rack with the correct grip, elbows in the correct position, chest up and hips forward. Do not begin to drive the bar upwards before you have pushed the hips forward. Doing so will cause you to push the bar forward slightly to avoid hitting the face, instead of straight up which is what is desired. Once the bar has passed the forehead, move the hips back and the torso forward to get under the bar, don‟t move the bar backwards. The forward movement of the torso aids in the lockout of the elbows and traps, bringing the upper arm and forearm into alignment.

8. The military Shoulder Press does not use any momentum from the legs to assist the upper body in pressing the bar. Towards the end of a set, you may want to incorporate the push press‟ as the shoulders begin to fatigue. It is performed almost identically as the military press, with the addition of a small, explosive "push" with the legs. This
produces momentum from leg drive, which will allow you to push past the early sticking point brought on by fatigue. See Tip Box on how to incorporate this movement into the end of your sets.

SUMMARY

Use a full range of motion – Each rep starts from the anterior deltoid and ends at full lockout overhead. If fatigue sets in and you wish to squeeze out a few remaining reps, incorporate the „push press‟ technique. If you‟re using the push press from the outset, the weight you‟re using is too heavy and it‟s not a military press.

Brace your core – At higher weights, the tendency is to allow your lower back to arch and lean back beyond the amount it should. This shifts the stress onto the chest, as well as placing unwanted load on the lower back. Practice the breathing techniques outlined and incorporate the use of the hip movement to drive the bar upwards.

Anatomy-of-a-Shoulder-Press-006Tuck your chin – At higher difficulty levels, lifters tend to want to stick their head and neck forward. Keep your head back and neck in neutral position. If you begin to push your head forward, you are taking your upper body out of the optimal kinetic chain. Keeping the neck in the neutral position also has the added benefit of protecting your nose from being hit with the bar!

Practice makes perfect – Use a weightless bar or a broom handle which will allow you to practice the correct technique, without placing undue stress on the body or force your technique to suffer. Instead of using a mirror to gauge your position, ask a training partner to watch your form or better yet, video it & ask an elite level strength & conditioning coach (ahem) to analyse your form!

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